STUDY OF

ENERGY MEASUREMENT

 

What are the transients or over voltage spikes?

 

It's a condition of high and fast voltage rise in one or more phases.

Upload time: 10 nano-seconds a 100 micro-seconds.

Duration: 0,5 micro-seconds a 2000 micro-seconds.

Amplitude: 50 volts to a peak de 20000 (+) volts.

 

What are the causes that generate transients or over voltage spikes?

 

The 80% Internal Causes.

Motor Switching.

Capacitor Bank Switching.

Heating Resistors Switching.

Non-linear Loads Switching VDS, UPS.

The 20% External Causes.

Atmospheric Discharges.

Damage to subestations.

Accidents in Towers, Insulators,  Conductors.

 

3D Effect of transients or over voltage spikes.

 

Destruction (Catastrophic Failures)

Degradation (Premature Aging)

Deprogramming (Catastrophic Failures)

 

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ENERGY MEASUREMENT

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ENERGY MEASUREMENT

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ENERGY MEASUREMENT